These papers will be interesting to scholars studying not only the challenges faced by women physicians, including opposition from male physicians and male-dominated institutions, but also those studying the evolution of feminist thought. Preston drew on arguments that women should study medicine both because they were the same as men and because they were different from men. In doing so, she navigated several different intellectual discourses, including natural rights theory, separate spheres ideology, civilization theory, and national pride. These papers thus show how these ideas presented both problems and opportunities to women arguing for expanded rights. Finally, historians of women's education will note that these sources reflect nineteenth- and twentieth-century college women's broader sense of a shared mission.